Oaths, Declarations and Codes

Human Rights Documents


UN Charter

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)

International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR)

International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)

Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC)

Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) and Optional Protocol

Convention Against Torture (CAT)

UNESCO's Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights

UN Declaration on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide


African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)

African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights Maputo Protocol

African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child

American Convention on Human Rights (ACHR)

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women

The World Medical Association

The policies of the WMA are expressed in various declarations. The WMA was formed in 1948 as a reaction to the atrocities committed by members of the medical profession in Europe in the pre-war and wartime period.

The WMA seeks to promote policies which are in accord with the Hippocratic tradition which they represented in modern form in the Declaration of Geneva, 1948 and as later amended. The policies of the WMA need to be taken into full account in any bioethical analysis, reflecting as they do the obligations the medical profession imposes upon itself.


Codes of Ethics

A Physician's Ethical Duties - Persia 1770

Advice to a Physician - Persia 10th Century AD

Code of Ethics - Australia 2004 (editorially revised 2006)

Daily Prayer of a Physician - origins uncertain

Declaration of Geneva - World Medical Association 1949,1968,1983

Declaration of Helsinki - World Medical Association 1964

Five Commandments and Ten Requirements - China 1617

International Code of Medical Ethics - World Medical Association 1949,1968,1983

Oath of Asaph - Jewish, 3rd-7th Century AD

Oath of Hippocrates - Greece 4th Century BC

Oath of Initiation - India 1st Century AD

Oath of a Soviet Physician - Soviet Union 1971

Seventeen Rules of Enjuin - Japan 16th CenturyAD

Solemn Oath of a Physician of Russia - Russia 1992